NBRP Rat No: 0012 Strain NameSER/Kyo Commmon Name: SER, Spontaneously Epileptic Rat
 Principal Investigator  Tadao Serikawa
 Organization   Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University Institute of Laboratory Animals
 Address  Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku

606-8501 Kyoto

 Telephone  075-753-4360  Fax:  075-753-4409  serikawa@anim.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp
 Inbred Generations   F73 (March 2012) 
 Coat Color
 Deposition Status
 albino (c)
  Embryo      Sperm      Live Animals
 Usage Restrictions  The recipient of BIOLOGICAL RESOURCE shall obtain a prior written consent on use of it from the DEPOSITOR.
For a commercial use of this resource, a new contract must be concluded between the depositor and the recipient. 
 Genetic Status   Inbred   Segregating   Congenic   Consomic    Recombinant 
  Coisogenic   Spont. Mutant    Transgene   Ind. Mutant    Others 
 Comercial Availability   
 Research Category   Diabetes Obesity    Neurobiology    Ophthalmology    Dentistry    Cardio- Hypertension 
  Oncology   Metabolism   Otorhinology    Immunology    Infectious Disease
  Osteology    Internal Medicine   Dermatology   Reproduction    Development
  Behavior    Hematology    Urology   Pharmacology   Others 
  Control Strains   Reporter gene Strains  
 Gene Atrn: attractin, Aspa: aspartoacylase
 Origin Spontaneously Epileptic Rat (SER) was established as a double mutant by Serikawa by crossing tremor rats (later established as an inbred rat strain, TRM/Kyo, NBRP No.0015) and zitter rats (later established as an inbred rat strain, ZI/Kyo, NBRP No.0024) at Kyoto University (Serikawa, 1986). Their phenotype is caused by double mutations of tremor (<i>tm</i>) and zitter (<i>zi</i>) This strain is maintained by sib-mating of crossing the <i>zi</i> homozygous and the <i>tm</i> heterozygous. By positional cloning, an 8-bp deletion of attractin gene (<i>Atrn</i>) was identified as <i>zi</i> mutation (Kuramoto, 2001) and about 200-kb deletion including aspartoacylase gene (<i>Aspa</i>) was identified as <i>tm</i> mutation (Kitada, 2000). (Oct 20, 2009) 
 Strain Characteristics SER shows both absence-like seizure sand tonic convulsions (Serikawa, 1986; Sasa, 1988). Body tremors are observed between 2 and 11 weeks of age (Serikawa, 1991). Absence-like seizures characterized 5-7 Hz spike -wave-like complex are observed after 5 weeks of age and tonic seizures are observed after 6 weeks of age. Wild jumping or running episodes appear from 8-14 weeks of age (Asano, 1991). Pharmacologically, both absence-like and tonic seizures of SER are similar to those of human (Sasa, 1988). SER shows hypomyelination, vacuolation or spongiform degeneration (Inui, 1990; Kondo, 1991), sterile, waved hair, curled whiskers (Serikawa, 1986), auditory deficit (Kuse, 1991) and delayed postnatal behavioral development (Asano, 1990). <br />
Other reports using this strain are as follow: calcium channel (Sasa, 1992; Ishihara, 1993; Momiyama, 1995; Amano H, 2001; Amano T, 2001; Yan, 200), sodium channel (Guo, 2008) and neuropeptides (Takahashi, 2000). (Oct 20, 2009) 
 Breeding Conditions Maintained in homozygous <i>zi</i> allele and heterozygous <i>tm</i> allele. 
 Genotyping 8 bp deletion of Atrn gene for zi allele, genomic deletion of Aspa gene for tm allele.

<a href="http://www.anim.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp/nbr/documents/PCR_Gene/Atrn_zi_en.pdf">Genotyping protocol for Atrn</a>
<a href="http://www.anim.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp/nbr/documents/PCR_Gene/tm_en.pdf">Genotyping protocol for tm</a> 
 References  Serikawa T and Yamada J.
Epileptic seizures in rats homozygous for two mutations, zitter and tremor.
J Hered. 1986 Nov-Dec;77(6):441-4.

Kitada K, Akimitsu T, Shigematsu Y, Kondo A, Maihara T, Yokoi N, Kuramoto T, Sasa M and Serikawa, T.
Accumulation of N-acetyl-L-aspartate in the brain of the tremor rat, a mutant exhibiting absence-like seizure and spongiform degeneration in the central nervous system.
J Neurochem. 2000 Jun;74(6):2512-9.

Kuramoto T, Kitada K, Inui T, Sasaki Y, Ito K, Hase T, Kawaguchi S, Ogawa Y, Nakao K, Barsh GS, Nagao M, Ushijima T and Serikawa T.
Attractin/Mahogany/Zitter plays a critical role in myelination of the central nervous system.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jan 16;98(2):559-64.

Sasa M, Ohno Y, Ujihara H, Fujita Y, Yoshimura M, Takaori S, Serikawa T, Yamada J.
Effects of antiepileptic drugs on absence-like and tonic seizures in the spontaneously epileptic rat, a double mutant rat.
Epilepsia. 1988 Sep-Oct;29(5):505-13.

Serikawa T, Yamada J, Ujihara H, Ohno Y, Sasa M, Takaori S.
Ontogeny of absence-like and tonic seizures in the spontaneously epileptic rat.
Lab Anim. 1991 Jul;25(3):216-21.

Asano Y, Okaniwa A, Serikawa T, Yamada J.
Behavioural characteristics of wild jumping or running episodes in the double mutant spontaneously epileptic rat.
Lab Anim. 1990 Apr;24(2):131-6.

Inui T, Yamamura T, Yuasa H, Kawai Y, Okaniwa A, Serikawa T, Yamada J.
The spontaneously epileptic rat (SER), a zitter*tremor double mutant rat: histopathological findings in the central nervous system.
Brain Res. 1990 May 28;517(1-2):123-33.

Kondo A, Nagara H, Akazawa K, Tateishi J, Serikawa T, Yamada J.
CNS pathology in the neurological mutant rats zitter, tremor and zitter-tremor double mutant (spontaneously epileptic rat, SER). Exaggeration of clinical and neuropathological phenotypes in SER.
Brain. 1991 Apr;114 ( Pt 2):979-99.

Kuse H, Inui T, Asano Y, Hori M, Okaniwa A, Serikawa T, Yamada J.
Auditory brainstem response (ABR) in spontaneously epileptic rats (SER) and their parent mutants.
J Vet Med Sci. 1991 Aug;53(4):629-36.

Sasa M, Ishihara K, Momiyama T, Renming X, Todo N, Amano T, Serikawa T, Yamada J.
Abnormal calcium current in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells of the spontaneously epileptic rat (SER).
Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol. 1992 Jun;46(2):526-8.

Ishihara K, Sasa M, Momiyama T, Ujihara H, Nakamura J, Serikawa T, Yamada J, Takaori S.
Abnormal excitability of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons of spontaneously epileptic rats (SER), a double mutant.
Exp Neurol. 1993 Feb;119(2):287-90.

Momiyama T, Ishihara K, Serikawa T, Moritake K, Sasa M.
Effect of nicardipine on abnormal excitability of CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices of spontaneously epileptic rats.
Eur J Pharmacol. 1995 Jul 4;280(2):119-23.

Amano H, Amano T, Matsubayashi H, Ishihara K, Serikawa T, Sasa M.
Enhanced calcium influx in hippocampal CA3 neurons of spontaneously epileptic rats.
Epilepsia. 2001 Mar;42(3):345-50.

Amano T, Amano H, Matsubayashi H, Ishihara K, Serikawa T, Sasa M.
Enhanced Ca(2+) influx with mossy fiber stimulation in hippocampal CA3 neurons of spontaneously epileptic rats.
Brain Res. 2001 Aug 10;910(1-2):199-203.

Yan HD, Ishihara K, Hanaya R, Kurisu K, Serikawa T, Sasa M.
Voltage-dependent calcium channel abnormalities in hippocampal CA3 neurons of spontaneously epileptic rats.
Epilepsia. 2007 Apr;48(4):758-64.

Guo F, Yu N, Cai JQ, Quinn T, Zong ZH, Zeng YJ, Hao LY.
Voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.1, Nav1.3 and beta1 subunit were up-regulated in the hippocampus of spontaneously epileptic rat.
Brain Res Bull. 2008 Jan 31;75(1):179-87.

Takahashi Y, Tsunashima K, Sadamatsu M, Schwarzer C, Amano S, Ihara N, Sasa M, Kato N, Sperk G.
Altered hippocampal expression of neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, and glutamate decarboxylase in Ihara's epileptic rats and spontaneously epileptic rats.
Neurosci Lett. 2000 Jun 23;287(2):105-8.

Yan HD, Ishihara K, Seki T, Hanaya R, Kurisu K, Arita K, Serikawa T, Sasa M.
Inhibitory effects of levetiracetam on the high-voltage-activated L-type Ca(2+) channels in hippocampal CA3 neurons of spontaneously epileptic rat (SER).
Brain Res Bull. 2013 Jan;90:142-8.

Serikawa T, Mashimo T, Kuramoto T, Voigt B, Ohno Y, Sasa M.
Advances on Genetic Rat Models of Epilepsy.
Exp Anim. 64(1):1-7, 2015.