| Strain Characteristics
||Malformations of the thoracicolumbar vertebrae leading to kyphoscoliosis with restricted spinal canals and compressed spinal cords. The malformations occur from the 12th. thoracic to the 6th. lumbar vertebrae. Up to 7 vertebrae are affected, and some degree of abnormality occurs in 90% of individuals. The expression levels of Hox10 and Hox11 paralogs, which regulate the formation of lumbar and sacral vertebrae, is extremely low in lumbo-sacral transitional areas of ISR compared with those of normal rats (Seki, 2008). The IS rat shows the low plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity but there is no relations between the ALP activity and the vertebral anomalies (Maekawa, 1982). (Jun 4, 2009)
||Yoshihara M, Sato T, Saito D, Ohara O, Kuramoto T, Suyama M.
Application of target capture sequencing of exons and conserved non-coding sequences to 20 inbred rat strains.
Genomics Data. 2016 Dec; 10: 155-157
Tsunoda D, Iizuka H, Ichinose T, Iizuka Y, Mieda T, Shimokawa N, Takagishi K, Koibuchi N.
The Trk family of neurotrophin receptors is downregulated in the lumbar spines of rats with congenital kyphoscoliosis.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2015 Nov 7. [Epub ahead of print]
Takano M, Ogawa E, Saitou T, Yamaguchi Y, Asano Y, Serikawa T, Kuramoto T.
Morphological features of adult rats of IS/Kyo and IS-Tlk/Kyo strains with lumbar and caudal vertebral anomalies.
Exp Anim. 2014;63(3):269-75.
Kuramoto T, Nakanishi S, Ochiai M, Nakagama H, Voigt B, Serikawa T.
Origins of Albino and Hooded Rats: Implications from Molecular Genetic Analysis across Modern Laboratory Rat Strains.
PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43059.
Torigoe D, Ichii O, Dang R, Ohnaka T, Okano S, Sasaki N, Kon Y, Agui T.
High-resolution linkage mapping of the rat hooded locus.
J Vet Med Sci. 2011 May;73(5):707-10.
Seki T, Shimokawa N, Iizuka H, Takagishi K, Koibuchi N.
Abnormalities of vertebral formation and Hox expression in congenital kyphoscoliotic rats.
Mol Cell Biochem. 312(1-2):193-9, 2008.
Congenital vertebral malformation (Ishibashi rats).
In Handbook on Animal Models of Human Diseases, pp. 430-434, Kawamata J. and Matushita H. (edit.) Ishiyaku Shuppan Ltd. Tokyo. 1979.
Maekawa R, Yamada J, Nikaido H.
Genetical studies of low plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the IS strain of rats.
Jikken Dobutsu. 31:13-19, 1982.
Yamada J, Nikaido H, Moritake S, Maekawa R.
Genetic analyses of the vertebral anomalies of the IS strain of rat and the development of a BN congenic line with the anomalies.
Lab Anim. 16: 40-47, 1982.
Moritake S, Yamamuro T, Yamada J, Watanabe H.
Progression of congenital kyphosis in Ishibashi rats.
Acta Orthop Scand. 54: 841-846, 1983.